SULAIR Home

News aggregator

[Report] Mechanical force releases nascent chain–mediated ribosome arrest in vitro and in vivo

Science - 18 hours 49 min ago
Protein synthesis rates can affect gene expression and the folding and activity of the translation product. Interactions between the nascent polypeptide and the ribosome exit tunnel represent one mode of regulating synthesis rates. The SecM protein arrests its own translation, and release of arrest at the translocon has been proposed to occur by mechanical force. Using optical tweezers, we demonstrate that arrest of SecM-stalled ribosomes can indeed be rescued by force alone and that the force needed to release stalling can be generated in vivo by a nascent chain folding near the ribosome tunnel exit. We formulate a kinetic model describing how a protein can regulate its own synthesis by the force generated during folding, tuning ribosome activity to structure acquisition by a nascent polypeptide. Authors: Daniel H. Goldman, Christian M. Kaiser, Anthony Milin, Maurizio Righini, Ignacio Tinoco, Carlos Bustamante
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

[New Products] New Products

Science - 18 hours 49 min ago
A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

[Podcast] Science Podcast: 24 April Show

Science - 18 hours 49 min ago
On this week's show: The 25th Anniversary of the Hubble Space Telecope, and a roundup of daily news stories.
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

[Business Office Feature] Revealing the secrets of intractable cellular functions: All-in-one-well methods for studying protein interaction and secretion

Science - 18 hours 49 min ago
Protein-based assays are essential tools for many laboratories in both industrial and academic settings. Protein targets of interest are often found at low abundance and can be complex in nature, making their analysis intractable. One of the considerable challenges when developing assays is that small sample sizes can limit the amount of relevant information that can be extracted. The ability to miniaturize an assay allows sufficient data to be collected from scarce samples, while being able to interrogate multiple proteins simultaneously through multiplexing enables researchers to extract more data from each experiment and improve the biological relevance of the results significantly. This multiplexing ability provides the opportunity to quantitatively profile multiple signaling pathways from minute samples derived from very small cell populations. Furthermore, having the tools to directly study protein target binding in cells allows biologically relevant information to be preserved, including subcellular localization, posttranslational modifications, and the occurrence of multiple interactions with different accessory proteins and other scaffolding molecules. In this webinar, two examples of such approaches will be discussed. The first is the use of a method to amplify the signal in a target engagement assay using small samples, utilized to interrogate modulators of cytokine secretion. The second involves a so-called cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) to detect protein-ligand interactions without the need to modify either the ligand or receptor, or the necessity for recombinant cell lines.View the Webinar Authors: Thomas Lundbck, Nathan P. Coussens
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

[Working Life] To work or not shouldn't be a question

Science - 18 hours 49 min ago
Authors: Marion Ronit Munk, René Rückert
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

After the lecture: Extra dimensions, interacting dark matter, and the power of uncertainty

NSF Earth & Environment News - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 23:58

In her most recent book, physicist Lisa Randall--Harvard professor, libretto composer, Lego figurine, star in the world of theoretical physics--writes that the universe repeatedly reveals itself to be cleverer than we are. This is not a submission to the mysteries of the universe; rather, ...
More at http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=134921&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click


This is an NSF News item.

Categories: Falconer Feeds

Disrupting graphene

Chemistry World - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 17:00
Scientists hope their comprehensive roadmap will help tease out graphene’s potential
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Fast-track peer review trial ends following resignations

Chemistry World - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 17:00
Payment trial for expedited reviews ends in wake of editorial board resignations
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

A negative outlook

Chemistry World - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 17:00
Could the Shroud of Turin’s mysterious negative imprints have a chemical cause?
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

30 years ago: wartime degrees

Chemistry World - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 17:00
How prisoners during the Second World War were able to study for chemistry degrees
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Science skirmishes continue on Capitol Hill

Chemistry World - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 17:00
Republican research funding bill faces opposition from science and academic research groups
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Imaging the future

Chemistry World - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 17:00
Doctors and pharmaceutical companies are beginning to open their eyes to the power of mass spectrometry imaging, finds Nina Notman
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Firms Beat Dollar, Price Pressures

Chemical & Engineering News - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 14:41
Chemical Earnings: First quarter surpasses expectations as companies report strong demand
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Jaws meets kangaroo? Rare, cute pocket shark found in deep

PhysOrg.com - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 14:27
Think Jaws meets a kangaroo, with maybe a touch of cute kitten, and you've got the aptly named pocket shark—the newest and rarest species found off the U.S. coast.
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Toyota to provide first hydrogen-fueled pace car

PhysOrg.com - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 14:20
A hydrogen-fueled vehicle will lead the field at a NASCAR race for the first time when a 2016 Toyota Mirai serves as the official pace car Saturday night at Richmond.
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Chemists' synthesis of silicon oxides opens 'new world in a grain of sand'

PhysOrg.com - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 14:09
In an effort that reaches back to the 19th-century laboratories of Europe, a discovery by University of Georgia chemistry researchers establishes new research possibilities for silicon chemistry and the semiconductor industry.
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Artificial Photosynthesis Device Paves Way Toward Sustainable Liquid Fuel

Chemical & Engineering News - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 13:46
Clean Energy: Solar-powered prototype transforms carbon dioxide to acetate, a feedstock for making high-value chemicals
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Researchers use novel polarization to increase data speeds

PhysOrg.com - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 13:26
As the world's exponentially growing demand for digital data slows the Internet and cell phone communication, City College of New York researchers may have just figured out a new way to increase its speed.
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Are websites that slide, zoom, and flip too fancy?

Futurity.org - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 13:10

Before web developers add the newest bells and whistles to their designs, a team of researchers suggests they zoom in on the tools that click with the right users and for the right tasks.

“When designers create sites, they have to make decisions on what tools and features they use and where they put them, which takes a lot of planning,” says S. Shyam Sundar, communications professor and co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Penn State. “You not only have to plan where the feature will be, you also have to design what will go underneath that layer, then create the content for it, so we wanted to know if these new, more sophisticated ways of interacting with a site are actually better than just clicking.”

The researchers, who presented their findings recently at the Computer Human Interaction conference in Seoul, South Korea, suggest that interactive tools can not only affect how people use a website, but also how they feel about the site, what they think about its content and what information they retain after they use it.

In a series of studies, the researchers examined how people interacted with content using several web navigation tools, including clicking, sliding, zooming, hovering, dragging, and flipping, along with combinations of those tools, according to Sundar. They also measured how much information they retained during the sessions as a way to test how absorbed the users were during the task.

Participants indicated that the slider, which allowed them to scroll along a timeline to view images and text about a historical event, was better at aiding memory than other tools, including a more recent navigational innovation, the 3D carousel, which allows users to rotate images.

When ‘sticky’ is not good

Sundar says that users spent more time on the carousel and interacted frequently with the tool, but that the number of interactions and length of time on the tool did not necessarily mean they found the carousel mentally engaging. Looks do not lead to better usability, he added.

“The 3D carousel looks attractive, but in terms of encoding information, it was not effective,” says Sundar.

This discrepancy between the high level of interaction and low level of satisfaction may also mean that a commonly used metric—how long a person has remained on a site—does not necessarily suggest a positive user experience.

“We used to think that the more time a user spent on a page or feature, or how ‘sticky’ it is, was a good thing and that it meant they were more interested in the page,” says Sundar. “However, it could also mean they are confused and having trouble navigating.”

‘Clicking’ is popular

Clicking, one of the web’s early navigational tools, continues to be a popular choice for users, according to the researchers, who also found that the level of a user’s web experience influenced the effect tools had on users’ attitudes toward site content. For example, expert-level web users liked the content more and thought it was more credible when the site used simple clicking and mouse-over tools compared to less intuitive tools like the 3D carousel and drag. The reverse is true for those who have limited expertise with technology.

“These techniques may be less natural to use, but they are seen as fancy by lay users,” says Sundar. “They have a ‘halo effect’ on content.”

Regardless of the differences across users, finding that these interactive tools can shape how users think and feel about media content is an important discovery, he adds.

In the first study, the researchers recruited 128 college students and assigned them one of 20 different websites that were designed to test the interaction techniques. The content was the same on all the websites. The researchers then recruited 127 college students for a study that examined a combination of website tools. These participants were assigned one of six different website versions designed to test their reaction to those combinations.

Sundar worked with Saraswathi Bellur of the University of Connecticut, Qian Xu of Elon University, Haiyan Jia of Penn State, and Jeeyun Oh of Robert Morris University.

Source: Penn State

The post Are websites that slide, zoom, and flip too fancy? appeared first on Futurity.

Why do animals fight members of other species?

PhysOrg.com - Thu, 04/23/2015 - 13:09
Why do animals fight with members of other species? A nine-year study by UCLA biologists says the reason often has to do with "obtaining priority access to females" in the area.
Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS
Syndicate content