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Nitric acid

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): Peter C. Ashbrook







Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Safety, security and dual-use chemicals

Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): Douglas B. Walters , Pauline Ho , Jasper Hardesty

Many chemicals that are commonly used in laboratories and industries can be harmful if not handled properly. Chemical safety best practices are designed to protect people from accidentally being exposed to hazardous chemicals. On the other hand, chemical security best practices are designed to protect people from someone deliberately exposing others to hazardous chemicals. Many chemical safety best practices overlap with chemical security best practices, but there are important differences, as will be discussed in this article.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

An ergonomic assessment of sample preparation job tasks in a chemical laboratory

Publication date: Available online 2 December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): Meshel A. Mork , Sang D. Choi

Previous research had indicated that repetitive motions and static postures could cause musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). A review of the ergonomic and safety literature indicated a lack of postural assessment information for job tasks within a chemical laboratory. The study used ergonomic assessment tools to evaluate the postures associated with laboratory sample preparation tasks. Six sample preparation job tasks were evaluated by the following tools: anthropometric and environmental data, a Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and a BodyMap. The REBA assessed six sub tasks within each sample preparation task. The relative range of postures associated with observed tasks as were determined. The results indicated medium to high-risk REBA scores in at least one sub task for each sample preparation job task. The resulting differences amongst the tasks and sub task REBA scores were due to environmental and anthropometric variations. Participants noted discomfort in the BodyMap survey, which corresponded to observed awkward postures in the REBA assessment. Frequent short breaks along with workstation re-design and a stretching program could help reduce the noted awkward postures. Further investigation and remediation were recommended for the chemical laboratory work environment.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Semi-quantitative analysis of three hydrocarbon accidents

Publication date: Available online 28 November 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): J.C. Jones

Simple and transparent equations for hydrocarbon combustion previously presented in a largely pedagogic fashion are applied to three particular accidents. Emphasis is on relating the equations to observations at the scenes of the respective accidents.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Dissolution rates of five inorganic mine ore inorganic elements in synthetic lung fluid

Publication date: Available online 21 November 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): David Adams , Jordan Koyle , Leon F. Pahler , Matt Thiese , Rodney Larson

Inhalation of dust generated in the mining process exposes workers to many health hazards. The inorganic elements nickel, copper, arsenic, cadmium, and lead have been found in some mine ore and have suspected relationships to adverse health effects. Dissolution rates for copper, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and nickel in respirable sized particles of a selected mine ore were determined in synthetic lung fluid at two different pH levels. Synthetic lung fluid with a pH of 7.2 was used to simulate extracellular lung fluid and synthetic lung fluid with a pH of 4.5 was used to simulate intracellular lung fluid. The synthetic lung fluid samples and quality assurance and quality control samples were continuously agitated for a 25-day period. A ten-milliliter sample was removed from each solution on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18, 21, and 25. Each sample was analyzed for dissolved nickel, copper, arsenic, cadmium, and lead concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analytical results show that all inorganic elements investigated dissolved at a higher rate in the 4.5 pH synthetic lung fluid than in the 7.2 pH synthetic lung fluid throughout the 25-day sampling period. In summary, it was observed that the dissolution rates for all inorganic elements in synthetic lung fluid were significantly different in the solutions at the two different pH levels. Maximum concentration of each inorganic element was higher in the 4.5 pH synthetic lung fluid solution. Results of this study show the five inorganic elements investigated are more likely to dissolve in intracellular lung fluid than in extracellular lung fluid.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Investigation of injury/illness data at a nuclear facility: Part II

Publication date: Available online 21 November 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): Michael E. Cournoyer , Vincent E. Garcia , Arnold N. Sandoval , Gerald L. George , David C. Gubernatis , Stephen B. Schreiber

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there are several nuclear facilities, accelerator facilities, radiological facilities, explosives sites, moderate- and high-hazard non-nuclear facilities, biosciences laboratory, etc. The Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Directorate (ADPSM) provides special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities. ADPSM manages the LANL Plutonium Facility. Within the Radiological Control Area at TA-55 (PF-4), chemical and metallurgical operations with plutonium and other hazardous materials are performed. LANL Health and Safety Programs investigate injury and illness data. In this study, statistically significant trends have been identified and compared for LANL, ADPSM, and PF-4 injury/illness cases. A previously described output metric is used to measures LANL management progress towards meeting its operational safety objectives and goals. Timelines are used to determine trends in Injury/Illness types. Pareto Charts are used to prioritize causal factors. Data generated from analysis of Injury/Illness data have helped identify and reduce the number of corresponding causal factors.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Occupational exposure to nanomaterials: Assessing the potential for cutaneous exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles in a semiconductor facility

Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): Sara A. Brenner , Nicole M. Neu-Baker

This study evaluated the potential for cutaneous exposures to engineered nanometal oxides from workplace surfaces in a semiconductor research and development facility. Exposure assessment methodology captured engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) from work surfaces accessible for worker contact via the skin that were associated with chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a polishing process utilized in semiconductor fabrication. A microvacuum approach was used to collect surface samples for morphological analysis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), both with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for compositional analysis. Eleven surface samples were collected along the CMP lifecycle: 1 from the cleanroom (“fab”) where wafer fabrication takes place, 4 from the subfab where bulk chemical delivery systems are located, and 6 from the wastewater treatment (WWT) area where CMP wastewater is treated and discharged. Engineered nanomaterials of interest (Si, Al, Ce) were found from all areas of collection, existing as particles or agglomerates (>100nm). Results support the findings of prior research and indicate that nanomaterials utilized or generated by CMP are found on work surfaces and may be accessible for cutaneous exposure by workers in semiconductor facilities. In order to minimize and/or prevent cutaneous exposures for workers who use or handle ENMs in this industry, prudent preventive work practices should be followed, including use of personal protective equipment, hazard communication, and engineering and administrative controls.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

Publication date: Available online 12 November 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): Michael E. Cournoyer , Stephen A. Costigan , Bradley S. Schake

Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Weapons grade plutonium (WG Pu) have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Implementing the Hazard Communication Standard final rule: Lessons learned

Publication date: Available online 6 November 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): Koshy Koshy , Michael Presutti , Mitchel A. Rosen

Changes to the Hazard Communication Standards (HCS) are bringing the United States into alignment with the Global Harmonization System (GHS). The new standard covers 43 million workers who handle hazardous chemicals in more than five million workplaces across the country. Forecasts predict that the implementation of these modifications to the HCS will prevent over 500 workplace injuries and illnesses, and 43 fatalities annually. This study, compiled through a collection and analysis of data provided by trainees who participated in the 2012 OSHA Susan Harwood training at the Rutgers School of Public Health, seeks to identify challenges and the effectiveness of this initiative. Survey data was obtained from a 21 question on-line survey 6–18 months post-training. In general, participants experienced several reoccurring challenges, including logistical difficulties of initiating a new and comprehensive training for all workers to the GHS changes, implementing GHS changes into their respective workplaces and receiving adequate management support and resources to initiate GHS efforts.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

The “Salon Safety Quiz” for pre-/post-evaluation assessment when training young cosmetology workers in public secondary schools

Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Author(s): Alexsandra Apostolico , Derek G. Shendell , Amy G. Lewis , Sarah W. Kelly , Alison T. Murtha , Jenny L. Houlroyd

A Salon Safety Quiz (SSQ) was developed in 2012 by New Jersey Safe Schools (NJSS) Program in conjunction with Georgia Tech Research Institute. The SSQ is intended to be a teaching tool and a starting point for discussion between cosmetology teachers and their students concerning health risks and hazards faced by salon workers. “Young Worker Safety and Health Training for the Cosmetology Industry” trainings conducted in both New Jersey (NJ) and Georgia (GA) utilized the SSQ as a pre-/post-assessment tool to gauge baseline knowledge on safety and health topics, as well as knowledge gained after trainings. Topics covered in the trainings include child labor laws and safety and health hazards for salon workers focusing on chemical safety and ergonomics. Pre- and post-aggregate data between April and September 2013 were analyzed for NJ and GA. There was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-mean scores for both NJ (p <0.001) and GA (p =0.004), and for mean post-test scores between NJ and GA (p <0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference between mean scores for both states between pre- and post-test scores for both 9th and 10th graders and 11th and 12th graders. Students in both states particularly had issues with identifying biological hazards, knowledge of the correct placement of fire extinguishers, how to prevent tripping hazards, and knowledge of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hazard communication standard and top cited salon offenses. Results can help guide objectives, specific sub-topics, and new activities for students in future young cosmetology worker trainings.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Contents

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6









Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Editorial Board

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6









Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Rainbows and tornados

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6

Author(s): Harry J. Elston







Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Letter to the Editor

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6

Author(s): William C. Penker







Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Safety culture and institutional memory

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6

Author(s): Frankie Wood-Black







Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Evaluation of the use of an SKC button inhalable aerosol sampler with a Grimm aerosol monitor to determine air concentrations of subtilisin

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6

Author(s): Jason B. Cross , Rodney R. Larson , Leon F. Pahler , Darrah K. Sleeth

Study purpose Currently, there is no OSHA or NIOSH monitoring method for subtilisin. This study evaluated a personal aerosol monitoring method for detection and quantification of subtilisin. The ACGIH ceiling limit and NIOSH short term exposure limit (STEL) for subtilisin is 0.06μg/m3 making it the lowest exposure limit established for any exposure by the organizations. This study specifically evaluated the use of an SKC Button inhalable aerosol sampler with a Grimm Aerosol Monitor for monitoring low concentrations of subtilisin particulates in air within a laundry detergent production facility. Methods Air samples of detergent with subtilisin were collected using a Button sampler containing a glass fiber filter concurrently with a Grimm model 1.109 Aerosol Spectrometer. Nineteen sampling events of four hours each were performed over a 7-week period, with three Button samplers operating simultaneously. Sampling locations included a detergent containing subtilisin (DCS) production area and a specially constructed enclosure where DCS was introduced in a controlledmanner. Sample analysis was conducted with a Konelab Arena 20 analyzer to quantify the amount of subtilisin collected on the filter of each air sample. Results A linear regression for the concentration of DCS aerosol measured in the enclosure by the Grimm was compared to the average concentration of DCS aerosol measured on the Button filter in the enclosure, which produced an R 2 value of 0.64 (p =0.006). The Pearson's correlation produced an r value of 0.8 (p =0.006). The linear regression for the average concentrations of DCS aerosol measured on the Button filter media compared to the average subtilisin detected from the aerosol in the enclosure produced an R 2 value of 0.66 (p =0.004). The Pearson's correlation produced an r value of 0.81 (p =0.004). Discussion The amount of subtilisin in all air samples in the DCS production area were below the limit of quantitation due to the subtilisin encapsulation at the DCS production area. This caused particles sizes to be greater than the inhalable fraction (100μm), which is also the limit of the size selectivity of the Button inhalable sampler. Conclusion The results of the statistical evaluation from the aerosol monitoring results in the enclosure indicate the Button inhalable sampler compared with the results from the Grimm aerosol monitor may be a valid method for determining airborne subtilisin concentrations for aerosols with diameters less than or equal to the 25μm particle size. However, due to all results below the limit of quantitation at the DCS production area, it is concluded that there are insufficient results to determine if the Button sampler with the Grimm aerosol monitor can be used in the workplace.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Presenting of failure probability assessment pattern by FTA in Fuzzy logic (case study: Distillation tower unit of oil refinery process)

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6

Author(s): M. Omidvari , S.M.R. Lavasani , S. Mirza

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is an appropriate tool for failure analysis and failure rate determination. In some cases, it is difficult or even impossible to determine the relationships among the main factors of system failure. Moreover manual calculation of subsystem failure probability rate is hard or impossible. Also, in some situation for the lack of information about the process and main event obtained results are uncertain. This is where fuzzy tool can be best exploited. In this study with matching of FTA and fuzzy for determination of failure probability, we can obtain accurate and certain results. Refinery industry is one of the most dangerous industries in Iran and in some places it is located near the crowded cities. The distillation unit, as one of the most dangerous units in this industry, was evaluated by Fuzzy Fault tree analysis (FFTA) tool. The findings of this study can be used in risk management method.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Case study: The value of “less than” and “non-detects” in monitoring

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6

Author(s): Harry J. Elston

Personal sampling is conducted in workplaces to establish and document the level of worker's exposure to hazardous chemicals. The results obtained from the monitoring are compared to recognized occupational exposure limits to judge if those limits have been exceeded. When the results come back from the lab as indistinguishable from a known blank or less than an occupational exposure limit some employers stop there. However, these results can often reveal important information about work practices that can be improved to reduce worker's exposure. In this case study, we look at organic vapor exposure during a “qualitative analysis” experiment at a small college and look at the results as a springboard to improve work practices and to teach workplace exposure reduction techniques.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

A comprehensive plan to reduce losses from water damage at a university

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6

Author(s): Neil G. Carlson , Kelly Mullane

Water damage to buildings at research institutions is disruptive and costly. Research Universities have a unique variety of building stock varying from high hazard research laboratories to traditional offices, dorms, multifamily student housing, libraries, residences and rental properties. Each of these represents different challenges. Institutions can benefit from an integrated response to water events that includes prevention and mitigation strategies to reduce the cost and improve the durability of buildings.





Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS

Rules, regulations and codes for drones, unmanned aerial vehicle, NextGen Air Transportation, unmanned air systems

Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 21, Issue 6

Author(s): David Rainer







Categories: SCI-TECH NEWS
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